Publishing date: 11. 05. 2017 | Category: NEWS, PAST

FINE ARTS EXHIBITION: Salvador Dalí – Recettes d’immortalité

I N V I T A T I O N

Gallery-Museum Lendava and  Municipality of Lendava kindly invites you and your friends to the opening of the exhibition

Salvador Dalí
Recipes of Immortality,

which will be held on Thursday, 18th May 2017 at 7 pm at Lendava castle.

Welcome speech by Beata Lazar,
Director of the Gallery-Museum Lendava.

Additional speeches by mag. Anton Balažek, Mayor of the Municipality of Lendava and
art historian dr. Marjeta Ciglenečki.

The exhibition will be opened by Tone Peršak,
Minister of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia.


The exhibition will be be open until 31 October 2017.


 

Salvador Dalí: Recettes d’immortalité
From the Richard H. Mayer private art collection

Salvador Dalí
Recipes of Immortality

Gallery-Museum Lendava invites you to come and view an exhibition of more than one hundred prints and drawings and two tapestries by the Catalan artist, Salvador Dalí (1904–1989), loaned to the Lendava Castle by private collector, Richard H. Mayer, from Germany.

Salvador Dalí, who is known as a leader in Surrealism, made his fame both through his great art and his provocative lifestyle. His oeuvre embraces nearly the entire 20th century, for he began to create while still very young, and his direct, explosive imaginative power remained firm until his death. He lived in the limelight, working in the isolated fishing village of Port Lligat in Cadaquésu, and he longed for physical and spiritual eternity.

Exhibition organizers: The Gallery-Museum Lendava and Kontakt Verlag, Neufahrn bei Freising.


INVITATION GRAPHICS


ABOUT THE EXHIBITION

Salvador Dalí (1904–1989)
Recipes of Immortality

Salvador Dalí (portrait)

Salvador Dalí was one of Europe’s leading Surrealists, his creative years covering nearly three quarters of the 20th century. He studied painting in Madrid (1922-1926), but conflicts with his professors put an end to that. Much more than by the traditionally-oriented program at the Madrid academy, however, he was formed by the Residencia de Estudiantes, an open, liberal and multi-disciplinary student organization where Spanish modern art developed. His friends, García Lorca (1898-1936) and Luis Buñuel (1900-1983), also moved in those circles. Already during his stay in Madrid, Dalí appeared to be highly sophistocated, and his first steps toward modern painting were accompanied by theoretical reflections that were published in Spanish and later in Parisian art magazines. He saw Paris for the first time in 1927, where he met Picasso (1881-1973); he also delved into the writings of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and was influenced greatly by them. Leaning upon psychoanalysis, he called his creative approach “critical paranoia”, describing it as a “…spontaneous method of irrational knowledge based on the critical and systematic objectivity of the associations and interpretations of delirious phenomena.” His wish was for a similar delirious state to overcome viewers looking at his paintings, as if they themselves were inspired by echoes of the creative process. The Parisian Surrealists took notice of him, and he exhibited with them as early as 1929. However, some years later they went their separate ways, due, among other things, to Dalí’s unique lifestyle. He was deft in the pursuit of personal promotion, and newspapers followed his excessive public appearances. He traveled extensively, moving in fashionable circles among the affluent, selling his works for inordinate sums. But Dalí was not only a painter, he was a designer as well, working for the fashion industry and participating in the commercial world. His political beliefs set him apart from the prevailing mood among his contemporaries in the artistic community, and his defense of the Franco dictatorship damaged his reputation.

From 1929 onward, he lived with Gala (1894-1982), the former wife of poet Paul Éluard. Dalí was fully devoted to her, and her likeness is present in many of his works. When they weren’t traveling, they lived in solitude in Port Lligat, a small fishing village in Catalonia, where Dalí created with incredible discipline and in perfect control of his calling. He was an outstanding expert on earlier paintings and an astute investigator of such demanding fine arts procedures as those devised by the old masters. He developed a complex iconography, based in its early stages on his study of Freud’s psychoanalysis, but was tied all the same to his own trauma.

Later he took a lively interest in scientific discoveries as well as in the ancient mysticism of past centuries, both of which are reflected in his art. He created an exceptionally broad oeuvre, which numerous monographs, exhibitions and debates have not yet fully reviewed and conclusively assessed. Among art collectors, his artworks are highly valued. Richard H. Mayer’s Bamberg collection harbors a remarkable number of Dalí’s works on paper, particularly from the period after the Second World War.

Experts of Dalí’s oeuvre highlight the 1930s, when he belonged to the circle of Paris Surrealists. The year 1934 was especially fruitful, for he had six solo exhibitions, two in both New York and Paris, one in Barcelona and one in London. That year a number of his key works were completed, among them a series of héliogravure and drypoint inspired by Maldoror’s famous songs, published by Skira and used as illustrations for a text by Count Lautréamont (1846-1870). With his fantastic visions, Lautréamont was an important role model for the Surrealist movement, and Luis Buñuel and Dalí paid tribute to him with the film, The Golden Age (1930). Dalí did not consistently follow the unusual situations in Lautréamont’s poetry, but rather, he focused on motifs he was simultaneously developing in his own artworks, including an interpretation of the famous painting, Evening Prayer, by French Realist François Millet (1857-1859). His version proceeded from Freud’s theories, and the Oedipus complex is recognized in the figure of a melancholic farmer. The Lendava castle exhibition acquaints visitors with that prolific phase in Dalí’s career; otherwise the majority of exhibited works date back to the post-World War II period.

Cathedral of the Thumbs
1947, pen and ink drawing, 15,8 x 20,8 cm

In 1940, Gala and Salvador Dalí fled from France to the United States and remained there for eight years. Even in exile he was very active. He received many orders and worked in various fields. Among other things, the Doubleday publishing company in New York hired him as an illustrator. Michel de Montaigne’s writings had excited him for a long time. He furnished the French Renaissance thinker’s essays with 37 illustrations, among which is an image of a thumb. Back in 1929, the magazine, L’amic de les arts, posted an essay entitled Liberation of the Fingers, dealing with the thumb’s symbolism and the motif of a feathered phallus, honored in antiquity in fertility prayers. In the Mayer collection is an ink drawing called Cathedral of Thumbs, dated 1947. Six large thumbs casting long, dark shadows are distributed in a wide open area. Figures enhance the scene with thumbs up on raised hands. In the second half of the 1940s, Dalí took a new approach toward painting, presenting it in the text of 50 Secrets of Magic Craftsmanship (1948). The secrets are more often than not rules of a technical nature, reminiscent of the thinking of Renaissance masters. Dalí studied ancient writings with great admiration and in those years he also undertook painting in such a manner that some refered to it as new Classicism, while at the same time describing it as early Surrealism. An outstanding piece from this period, Leda Atomica (1949), depicts Gala nude, with a swan and various objects floating in space. Evocation of the Renaissance is evident, as are his accentuated precision and perspective, symmetry and references to antiquity. His fascination with achievements in atomic physics is apparent as well. The explosion of the atomic bomb, symbolically ending World War II, convinced him that the atom must become the core of his future thought.

In 1948 Dalí returned to Spain and remained there until his death in 1989. He publicly expressed his support for an anti-democratic and absolute monarchy, and for General Franco, earning himself much resentment. His political views caused many art critics to deny his artistic and intellectual authority. He published his Mystical Manifesto in 1951 in Paris, explaining his pursuit of Neoclassicism and rediscovery of the Renaissance.

Christ of Saint John of the Cross
1951, pen and ink drawing, 20,5 x 14,5 cm

In reviews, Dalí’s paintings from the 1950s are commonly referred to as his mystical-nuclear phase. He was attracted to asceticism and mysticism as they were practiced by Spanish mystics during the Renaissance. He studied mathematics and the Pythagorean writings of the Franciscan, Luca Paciolija (1445-1514), and the Spanish architect, Juan de Herrera (1530-1597), and at the same time, he was drawn to the latest discoveries in atomic physics, quantum mechanics and logarithmic spirals, that he saw, for example, in the rhinoceros horn. He associated the phenomena of dematerialization and weightlessness with heavenly secrets. He was affected by the experience of the 16th century Carmelite monk and mystic, St. John of the Cross, to whom the Crucifix appeared while he was praying in a monastery in Avila, after which he sketched his vision. The 1641 drawing was saved in a monstrance, and it is precisely this drawing that inspired Dalí. St. John of the Cross painted Christ from above and turned slightly to one side; the lower part of the cross is cut off from the composition, so we perceive the Crucifix as floating in air. Dalí also portrayed his Crucifix in a view from above, but he centralized it. Seen in its entirety, the cross floats on the dark background of the sky, and below it, the last rays of the sun redden the clouds and gleam on the side of a boat on a beach, ostensibly the Bay of Port Lligat where he and Gala had lived. For the painting, kept in the Art Gallery in Glasgow, he made quite a few studies; of particular interest are the oldest among them, dated 1950 and 1951 and provided with a note. In it Dalí explained a “cosmic dream” he had in 1950, when the drawing of St. John of the Cross appeared to him in color. Apparently he talked about it with Father Bruno, a Paris Carmelite, and rendered his dream vision of Christ as a small circle in an inverted triangle, which is also the compositional design for his big picture. One etching in Mayer’s collection depicts another Christ on the cross, floating in a landscape, rays spreading from the left edge of the sheet toward the Crucifix; points of the lines form a triangle on Christ’s body, indicating spots for the nails.

Dalí illustrated his Mystical Manefesto with such floating images of Christ; a version also exists without the Cross and landscapes. He incorporated the floating Crucifix in other, earlier works, too, outstanding among which is the large composition, Assumpta Corpuscularia Lapislazulina (1952), representing the Assumption of Mary. Mary has Gala’s face and body; repeated on her transparent and elongated torso and above the altar is the Christ of St. John of the Cross, but this time without the cross.

Dalí affirms in his memoirs that his greatest teacher was Don Juan Núñez Fernández (1877-1963), who was excellent in etching and twelve years earlier on had introduced Dalí to the nuances of the light-dark principle and the secrets of Rembrandt’s prints. When Dalí had to leave the Academy in Madrid and had returned to his home in Figueras, his father bought him a printing machine. Dalí prefered to work in drypoint, often refining it with etching; overall, he experimented a lot. He considered lithography technically uninteresting and without any real power, but it proved to be convenient for his experiments. He “shot” lithographic inks (ie, his assistants did the shooting) on stone matrixes, achieving Tachisme-like effects. One unusual technique was called Bulletism, after the French word boule, meaning ball. A ball, a kind of bomb, was filled with ink or various other objects that would explode and leave blots when shot at a matrix.

Madonne (DON QUICHOTTE DE LA MANCHE)
(Don Quixote)
1957 Paris, color lithograph, 64,5 x 41 cm

A bibliophile, Dalí kept a lot of books in his house in Port Lligat. His biographers report that he wrote notations in them and underlined interesting passages while reading. He also authored several books himself; some describe his life, others explain his artistic credo. Furthermore, he was an acclaimed illustrator. Sometimes he produced illustrations in watercolor that engravers then transferred to matrixes, but often he carved them into the matrixes himself. He used the Bulletism technique for the first time in illustrations prepared for Don Quixote (1957). The publisher insisted on lithographs, so Dalí began an experiment. He fired at a stone block from an old gun, having filled the lead bullets with lithographic ink. He described the damage to the block as “God’s smudges, some sort of angel wings, made from air and dynamic power”. The accidental damage to the blocks served as his compositional starting point; he took motifs from his famous repertoire, inspired by Renaissance masters, simultaneously interweaving the contemporary themes occupying him at that moment. Thus, among prints of a nuclear windmill can be found one where the menacingly anthropomorphized cloud of an atomic explosion rises above the figure of a medieval knight. Traces of ancient animals (snail, ammonites) were also printed; namely, Dalí required blocks of limestone with a high fossil content, obtained in Bavaria’s Solnhofen.

All in the Golden Afternoon
(Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)
1969 New York, etching, 43 x 58 cm

Since the 1960s, Dalí increasingly borrowed motifs from other authors. Accordingly, after coming to an agreement with publisher Pierre Argillet, he reworked Picasso’s 1957 Bullfighting, while also being inspired by Goya’s etchings series on the same topic. He gave the watercolors for his Surrealist Bullfight series (1966/67) to printing masters to print using the héliogravure technique. Goya’s and Picasso’s point of departure came from their fascination with the ritual slaughter of the bull and events in the arena; Dalí updated the content. Details from his other compositions can be observed on individual prints. The one entitled Television (the scene is captured in the frame of a television screen) is taken from Pop Art. Similarly, he prepared drafts for Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, which were printed as color héliogravures (1968/69). In addition to the prints in the Mayer collection, there are two drafts in gouache. The whimsically rich world of famous tales fit Dalí’s sense of the surreal. A girl wielding a jump rope is clearly the Alice character, but as a red thread running throughout are also realistically true butterflies and beetles. The vivid characters of the series correspond with Dalí’s interest in the contemporary hippy movement. His compositions follow the text’s literary narrative, but confront us with the typical Dalí subjects in them, for example, Soft Watches. Similar is a lively series of colored lithographs on the theme of Carmen. The painter followed the scenes from Georges Bizet’s famous opera as they occurred on stage, but in certain places he arranged some portraits of the main characters.

LE PIANO SOUS LA NEIGE (TAUROMACHIE SURRÉALISTE)
(Surrealist Bullfight)
1967 Paris, drypoint and aquatint, 51 x 66 cm

DIX RECETTES D’IMMORTALITÉ
  Ten Recipes for Immortality
1973 Paris, plexiglass case, 65 x 56 x 10 cm

Salvador Dalí’s book-object, Ten Recipes for Immortality (1973), occupies a special place in his later oeuvre, and also in the Lendava castle exhibition. A Plexiglass case, its handle formed like a telephone handset and locks like sunny side up eggs, contains several prints (mainly drypoint) that resemble leaflets. In designing the book-object, Dalí adopted the stereoscopic technique, one he discovered while studying the works of the Dutch painter, Gerrit Dou (1613-1675). He found in the human brain two flat images, nearly, but not quite the same, that depict the same motif in slightly altered angles and merge them into a single image with a distinctive three-dimensional spatial effect. Dalí was enthusiastic over this finding, and binocular vision kept him very busy in the 1970s. He equated it with the greatest of physical discoveries and in it he detected God’s laws, pure energy and a source of immortality. The Ten Recipes of Immortality are based on scientific knowledge that, one way or another, is connected with humankind’s eternal striving for eternity, and about which he had been in touch with numerous experts. Dalí was troubled by the question of death, also on a personal level, and among his representations in a variety of topics, encumbered with older art, sacred symbolism and his famous Dalí-esque Surrealistic repertoire, is a three part leaflet with the significant title, Stereoscopic Immortal Monarch (also, Immortal Monarch), which we can link to his convictions concerning the only real political arrangement.

MOSES (MOĪSE ET LE MONOTHÉISME)
(Moses and Monotheism)
1974 Paris/Nice, woodcut, 65,5 x 49,7 cm

There are also prints stored in a leather case (lithographs with etchings in the center, printed on lambskin) entitled Moses and Monotheism (1974). The case is adorned with a silver plated relief of Moses, after Michelangelo. Texts from Freud’s Moses and Monotheism (1939) accompany the artwork. The selection of its content came from Dalí’s universal interest in Freud, but also from his specific relations with his authoritarian father, who had a habit of winding a lock of hair around his fingers, creating a spiral that stuck out over his head like a horn of Moses.

Chronologically, the exhibition concludes with a watercolor depicting two Soft Watches (1978). The pocket watches, bending and stretching like a kind of limp tongue, are probably the most recognizable subjects in the extensive range of unusual items in Dalí’s paintings. His first one came along in 1931 in the piece, Persistence of Memory (now in the Museum of Modern Art in New York). Ordinarily we interpret them to symbolize the relativity of space and time, although the painter himself said he was inspired by a piece of cheese softened in a hot environment. Soft watches often appear as opponents to the element of hardness, for Dalí was attracted by pairs in a contrapoint relationship.

Salvador Dalí is one of the most famous artists of the 20th century, very unique and controversial. He was not bound by popular currents, and his works have been subject to various evaluations. Some eminent critics dismissed him, among them Clement Greenberg (1909-1994); however, he also had numerous admirers and followers. The study of his oeuvre from a longer distance in time gains the objectivity of research and we can expect new findings to bring us even closer to the complex creative cravings of this unusual painter from Catalonia.

Slovenian artists were acquainted with Surrealism even before the Second World War. Stane Kregar (1905-1973) learned of it during his studies in Prague through magazine publications and from works of the Czech Surrealists. In Paris in 1937 and 1938, he was able to examine original works from Dalí’s critical-paranoia phase. Tomaž Brejc notes that Kregar did not accept Dalí’s radical approach. He wrote further that Kregar was inspired by the Catalonian painter’s particularities, which he borrowed and carried over to his own compositions, forming his personal variation of Surrealism, marked by “thirty years of Slovenian religious-rural staging.” Kept among the items left by the Ptuj painter, Albin Lugarič (1927-2014), is a playful wash drawing of the famous Catalonian artist at whom a pesky fly is flinging eggs.

Salvador Dalí was one of Europe’s leading Surrealists, his creative years covering nearly three quarters of the 20th century. He studied painting in Madrid (1922-1926), but conflicts with his professors put an end to that. Much more than by the traditionally-oriented program at the Madrid academy, however, he was formed by the Residencia de Estudiantes, an open, liberal and multi-disciplinary student organization where Spanish modern art developed. His friends, García Lorca (1898-1936) and Luis Buñuel (1900-1983), also moved in those circles. Already during his stay in Madrid, Dalí appeared to be highly sophistocated, and his first steps toward modern painting were accompanied by theoretical reflections that were published in Spanish and later in Parisian art magazines. He saw Paris for the first time in 1927, where he met Picasso (1881-1973); he also delved into the writings of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and was influenced greatly by them. Leaning upon psychoanalysis, he called his creative approach “critical paranoia”, describing it as a “…spontaneous method of irrational knowledge based on the critical and systematic objectivity of the associations and interpretations of delirious phenomena.” His wish was for a similar delirious state to overcome viewers looking at his paintings, as if they themselves were inspired by echoes of the creative process. The Parisian Surrealists took notice of him, and he exhibited with them as early as 1929. However, some years later they went their separate ways, due, among other things, to Dalí’s unique lifestyle. He was deft in the pursuit of personal promotion, and newspapers followed his excessive public appearances. He traveled extensively, moving in fashionable circles among the affluent, selling his works for inordinate sums. But Dalí was not only a painter, he was a designer as well, working for the fashion industry and participating in the commercial world. His political beliefs set him apart from the prevailing mood among his contemporaries in the artistic community, and his defense of the Franco dictatorship damaged his reputation.

From 1929 onward, he lived with Gala (1894-1982), the former wife of poet Paul Éluard. Dalí was fully devoted to her, and her likeness is present in many of his works. When they weren’t traveling, they lived in solitude in Port Lligat, a small fishing village in Catalonia, where Dalí created with incredible discipline and in perfect control of his calling. He was an outstanding expert on earlier paintings and an astute investigator of such demanding fine arts procedures as those devised by the old masters. He developed a complex iconography, based in its early stages on his study of Freud’s psychoanalysis, but was tied all the same to his own trauma.

Later he took a lively interest in scientific discoveries as well as in the ancient mysticism of past centuries, both of which are reflected in his art. He created an exceptionally broad oeuvre, which numerous monographs, exhibitions and debates have not yet fully reviewed and conclusively assessed. Among art collectors, his artworks are highly valued. Richard H. Mayer’s Bamberg collection harbors a remarkable number of Dalí’s works on paper, particularly from the period after the Second World War.

Experts of Dalí’s oeuvre highlight the 1930s, when he belonged to the circle of Paris Surrealists. The year 1934 was especially fruitful, for he had six solo exhibitions, two in both New York and Paris, one in Barcelona and one in London. That year a number of his key works were completed, among them a series of héliogravure and drypoint inspired by Maldoror’s famous songs, published by Skira and used as illustrations for a text by Count Lautréamont (1846-1870). With his fantastic visions, Lautréamont was an important role model for the Surrealist movement, and Luis Buñuel and Dalí paid tribute to him with the film, The Golden Age (1930). Dalí did not consistently follow the unusual situations in Lautréamont’s poetry, but rather, he focused on motifs he was simultaneously developing in his own artworks, including an interpretation of the famous painting, Evening Prayer, by French Realist François Millet (1857-1859). His version proceeded from Freud’s theories, and the Oedipus complex is recognized in the figure of a melancholic farmer. The Lendava castle exhibition acquaints visitors with that prolific phase in Dalí’s career; otherwise the majority of exhibited works date back to the post-World War II period.

In 1940, Gala and Salvador Dalí fled from France to the United States and remained there for eight years. Even in exile he was very active. He received many orders and worked in various fields. Among other things, the Doubleday publishing company in New York hired him as an illustrator. Michel de Montaigne’s writings had excited him for a long time. He furnished the French Renaissance thinker’s essays with 37 illustrations, among which is an image of a thumb. Back in 1929, the magazine, L’amic de les arts, posted an essay entitled Liberation of the Fingers, dealing with the thumb’s symbolism and the motif of a feathered phallus, honored in antiquity in fertility prayers. In the Mayer collection is an ink drawing called Cathedral of Thumbs, dated 1947. Six large thumbs casting long, dark shadows are distributed in a wide open area. Figures enhance the scene with thumbs up on raised hands. In the second half of the 1940s, Dalí took a new approach toward painting, presenting it in the text of 50 Secrets of Magic Craftsmanship (1948). The secrets are more often than not rules of a technical nature, reminiscent of the thinking of Renaissance masters. Dalí studied ancient writings with great admiration and in those years he also undertook painting in such a manner that some refered to it as new Classicism, while at the same time describing it as early Surrealism. An outstanding piece from this period, Leda Atomica (1949), depicts Gala nude, with a swan and various objects floating in space. Evocation of the Renaissance is evident, as are his accentuated precision and perspective, symmetry and references to antiquity. His fascination with achievements in atomic physics is apparent as well. The explosion of the atomic bomb, symbolically ending World War II, convinced him that the atom must become the core of his future thought.

In 1948 Dalí returned to Spain and remained there until his death in 1989. He publicly expressed his support for an anti-democratic and absolute monarchy, and for General Franco, earning himself much resentment. His political views caused many art critics to deny his artistic and intellectual authority. He published his Mystical Manifesto in 1951 in Paris, explaining his pursuit of Neoclassicism and rediscovery of the Renaissance. In reviews, Dalí’s paintings from the 1950s are commonly referred to as his mystical-nuclear phase. He was attracted to asceticism and mysticism as they were practiced by Spanish mystics during the Renaissance. He studied mathematics and the Pythagorean writings of the Franciscan, Luca Paciolija (1445-1514), and the Spanish architect, Juan de Herrera (1530-1597), and at the same time, he was drawn to the latest discoveries in atomic physics, quantum mechanics and logarithmic spirals, that he saw, for example, in the rhinoceros horn. He associated the phenomena of dematerialization and weightlessness with heavenly secrets. He was affected by the experience of the 16th century Carmelite monk and mystic, St. John of the Cross, to whom the Crucifix appeared while he was praying in a monastery in Avila, after which he sketched his vision. The 1641 drawing was saved in a monstrance, and it is precisely this drawing that inspired Dalí. St. John of the Cross painted Christ from above and turned slightly to one side; the lower part of the cross is cut off from the composition, so we perceive the Crucifix as floating in air. Dalí also portrayed his Crucifix in a view from above, but he centralized it. Seen in its entirety, the cross floats on the dark background of the sky, and below it, the last rays of the sun redden the clouds and gleam on the side of a boat on a beach, ostensibly the Bay of Port Lligat where he and Gala had lived. For the painting, kept in the Art Gallery in Glasgow, he made quite a few studies; of particular interest are the oldest among them, dated 1950 and 1951 and provided with a note. In it Dalí explained a “cosmic dream” he had in 1950, when the drawing of St. John of the Cross appeared to him in color. Apparently he talked about it with Father Bruno, a Paris Carmelite, and rendered his dream vision of Christ as a small circle in an inverted triangle, which is also the compositional design for his big picture. One etching in Mayer’s collection depicts another Christ on the cross, floating in a landscape, rays spreading from the left edge of the sheet toward the Crucifix; points of the lines form a triangle on Christ’s body, indicating spots for the nails.

Dalí illustrated his Mystical Manefesto with such floating images of Christ; a version also exists without the Cross and landscapes. He incorporated the floating Crucifix in other, earlier works, too, outstanding among which is the large composition, Assumpta Corpuscularia Lapislazulina (1952), representing the Assumption of Mary. Mary has Gala’s face and body; repeated on her transparent and elongated torso and above the altar is the Christ of St. John of the Cross, but this time without the cross.

Dalí affirms in his memoirs that his greatest teacher was Don Juan Núñez Fernández (1877-1963), who was excellent in etching and twelve years earlier on had introduced Dalí to the nuances of the light-dark principle and the secrets of Rembrandt’s prints. When Dalí had to leave the Academy in Madrid and had returned to his home in Figueras, his father bought him a printing machine. Dalí prefered to work in drypoint, often refining it with etching; overall, he experimented a lot. He considered lithography technically uninteresting and without any real power, but it proved to be convenient for his experiments. He “shot” lithographic inks (ie, his assistants did the shooting) on stone matrixes, achieving Tachisme-like effects. One unusual technique was called Bulletism, after the French word boule, meaning ball. A ball, a kind of bomb, was filled with ink or various other objects that would explode and leave blots when shot at a matrix.

A bibliophile, Dalí kept a lot of books in his house in Port Lligat. His biographers report that he wrote notations in them and underlined interesting passages while reading. He also authored several books himself; some describe his life, others explain his artistic credo. Furthermore, he was an acclaimed illustrator. Sometimes he produced illustrations in watercolor that engravers then transferred to matrixes, but often he carved them into the matrixes himself. He used the Bulletism technique for the first time in illustrations prepared for Don Quixote (1957). The publisher insisted on lithographs, so Dalí began an experiment. He fired at a stone block from an old gun, having filled the lead bullets with lithographic ink. He described the damage to the block as “God’s smudges, some sort of angel wings, made from air and dynamic power”. The accidental damage to the blocks served as his compositional starting point; he took motifs from his famous repertoire, inspired by Renaissance masters, simultaneously interweaving the contemporary themes occupying him at that moment. Thus, among prints of a nuclear windmill can be found one where the menacingly anthropomorphized cloud of an atomic explosion rises above the figure of a medieval knight. Traces of ancient animals (snail, ammonites) were also printed; namely, Dalí required blocks of limestone with a high fossil content, obtained in Bavaria’s Solnhofen.

Since the 1960s, Dalí increasingly borrowed motifs from other authors. Accordingly, after coming to an agreement with publisher Pierre Argillet, he reworked Picasso’s 1957 Bullfighting, while also being inspired by Goya’s etchings series on the same topic. He gave the watercolors for his Surrealist Bullfight series (1966/67) to printing masters to print using the héliogravure technique. Goya’s and Picasso’s point of departure came from their fascination with the ritual slaughter of the bull and events in the arena; Dalí updated the content. Details from his other compositions can be observed on individual prints. The one entitled Television (the scene is captured in the frame of a television screen) is taken from Pop Art. Similarly, he prepared drafts for Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, which were printed as color héliogravures (1968/69). In addition to the prints in the Mayer collection, there are two drafts in gouache. The whimsically rich world of famous tales fit Dalí’s sense of the surreal. A girl wielding a jump rope is clearly the Alice character, but as a red thread running throughout are also realistically true butterflies and beetles. The vivid characters of the series correspond with Dalí’s interest in the contemporary hippy movement. His compositions follow the text’s literary narrative, but confront us with the typical Dalí subjects in them, for example, Soft Watches. Similar is a lively series of colored lithographs on the theme of Carmen. The painter followed the scenes from Georges Bizet’s famous opera as they occurred on stage, but in certain places he arranged some portraits of the main characters.

Salvador Dalí’s book-object, Ten Recipes for Immortality (1973), occupies a special place in his later oeuvre, and also in the Lendava castle exhibition. A Plexiglass case, its handle formed like a telephone handset and locks like sunny side up eggs, contains several prints (mainly drypoint) that resemble leaflets. In designing the book-object, Dalí adopted the stereoscopic technique, one he discovered while studying the works of the Dutch painter, Gerrit Dou (1613-1675). He found in the human brain two flat images, nearly, but not quite the same, that depict the same motif in slightly altered angles and merge them into a single image with a distinctive three-dimensional spatial effect. Dalí was enthusiastic over this finding, and binocular vision kept him very busy in the 1970s. He equated it with the greatest of physical discoveries and in it he detected God’s laws, pure energy and a source of immortality. The Ten Recipes of Immortality are based on scientific knowledge that, one way or another, is connected with humankind’s eternal striving for eternity, and about which he had been in touch with numerous experts. Dalí was troubled by the question of death, also on a personal level, and among his representations in a variety of topics, encumbered with older art, sacred symbolism and his famous Dalí-esque Surrealistic repertoire, is a three part leaflet with the significant title, Stereoscopic Immortal Monarch (also, Immortal Monarch), which we can link to his convictions concerning the only real political arrangement.

There are also prints stored in a leather case (lithographs with etchings in the center, printed on lambskin) entitled Moses and Monotheism (1974). The case is adorned with a silver plated relief of Moses, after Michelangelo. Texts from Freud’s Moses and Monotheism (1939) accompany the artwork. The selection of its content came from Dalí’s universal interest in Freud, but also from his specific relations with his authoritarian father, who had a habit of winding a lock of hair around his fingers, creating a spiral that stuck out over his head like a horn of Moses.

Chronologically, the exhibition concludes with a watercolor depicting two Soft Watches (1978). The pocket watches, bending and stretching like a kind of limp tongue, are probably the most recognizable subjects in the extensive range of unusual items in Dalí’s paintings. His first one came along in 1931 in the piece, Persistence of Memory (now in the Museum of Modern Art in New York). Ordinarily we interpret them to symbolize the relativity of space and time, although the painter himself said he was inspired by a piece of cheese softened in a hot environment. Soft watches often appear as opponents to the element of hardness, for Dalí was attracted by pairs in a contrapoint relationship.

Salvador Dalí is one of the most famous artists of the 20th century, very unique and controversial. He was not bound by popular currents, and his works have been subject to various evaluations. Some eminent critics dismissed him, among them Clement Greenberg (1909-1994); however, he also had numerous admirers and followers. The study of his oeuvre from a longer distance in time gains the objectivity of research and we can expect new findings to bring us even closer to the complex creative cravings of this unusual painter from Catalonia.

Slovenian artists were acquainted with Surrealism even before the Second World War. Stane Kregar (1905-1973) learned of it during his studies in Prague through magazine publications and from works of the Czech Surrealists. In Paris in 1937 and 1938, he was able to examine original works from Dalí’s critical-paranoia phase. Tomaž Brejc notes that Kregar did not accept Dalí’s radical approach. He wrote further that Kregar was inspired by the Catalonian painter’s particularities, which he borrowed and carried over to his own compositions, forming his personal variation of Surrealism, marked by “thirty years of Slovenian religious-rural staging.” Kept among the items left by the Ptuj painter, Albin Lugarič (1927-2014), is a playful wash drawing of the famous Catalonian artist at whom a pesky fly is flinging eggs.

Ustvarjalna leta Salvadorja Dalíja, enega vodilnih evropskih nadrealistov, zajemajo skoraj tri četrtine 20. stoletja. Slikarstvo je študiral v Madridu (1922–1926), vendar študija ni končal zaradi sporov s profesorji. Mnogo bolj kot v tradicijo naravnan program na madridski akademiji ga je oblikovala Residencia de Estudiantes, široko odprta, liberalna in multidisciplinarna študentska organizacija, znotraj katere se je razvila španska moderna umetnost. Tudi García Lorca (1898–1936) in Luis Buñuel (1900–1983), s katerima je prijateljeval, sta se gibala v teh krogih. Dalí je že med bivanjem v Madridu pokazal široko razgledanost in svoje prve korake v moderno slikarstvo spremljal s teoretskimi razmisleki, ki jih je objavljal v španskih in kasneje tudi pariških umetnostnih revijah. Leta 1927 je bil prvič v Parizu, kjer se je srečal s Picassom (1881–1973), poglabljal pa se je tudi v spise Sigmunda Freuda (1856–1939), ki so ga močno zaznamovali. Svoj ustvarjalni pristop, oprt na psihoanalizo, je poimenoval »kritična paranoja« in ga opisal kot »… spontano metodo razumnega spoznanja, ki temelji na kritično-interpretativni asociaciji deliričnega fenomena.« Želel si je, da bi gledalca med opazovanjem slik obvladalo podobno delirijsko stanje, kot je med ustvarjalnim procesom prežemalo njega samega. Pritegnil je pozornost pariških nadrealistov in leta 1929 že razstavljal z njimi. Po nekaj letih so se razšli, čemur je botroval tudi Dalíjev svojevrsten življenjski slog. Za osebno promocijo je znal dobro poskrbeti, časniki so sledili njegovim ekscesnim nastopom v javnosti, veliko je potoval in se gibal v mondenih krogih med največjimi bogataši, svoja dela pa prodajal za vrtoglave vsote. Dalí ni bil le slikar, bil je tudi oblikovalec, delal je za modno industrijo in znal je poseči v svet potrošništva. Njegovo politično prepričanje ni bilo v skladu s prevladujočim razpoloženjem v sočasnih umetniških srenjah, zagovarjal je namreč Francovo diktaturo, kar je škodilo njegovemu ugledu.

Od leta 1929 je živel z Galo (1894–1982), dotlej soprogo pesnika Paula Éluarda. Bil ji je povsem predan in Galina podoba obvladuje številna Dalíjeva dela. Kadar nista potovala, sta bivala v osami v majhni ribiški vasici Port Lligat v Kataloniji, kjer je Dalí ustvarjal z neverjetno disciplino in v brezhibnem obvladovanju métierja. Bil je izjemen poznavalec starejšega slikarstva in pronicljiv preučevalec zahtevnih likovnih postopkov, kakršne so zasnovali stari mojstri. Izoblikoval je zapleteno ikonografijo, ki je v zgodnejšem obdobju temeljila na preučevanju Freudove psihoanalize, a je bila vezana na njegove lastne travme.

Kasneje se je živo zanimal za odkritja s področja naravoslovnih znanosti in za misticizem preteklih stoletij hkrati, kar se je odrazilo v njegovem slikarstvu. Ustvaril je izjemno obsežen opus, ki kljub številnim monografijam, razstavam in razpravam še vedno ni v celoti pregledan in dokončno ovrednoten. Med zbiralci umetnin so Dalíjeva dela visoko cenjena; v zbirki Richarda H. Mayerja v Bambergu je ohranjenih izjemno število njegovih del na papirju, zlasti iz obdobja po drugi vojni.

Poznavalci v Dalíjevem opusu izpostavljajo trideseta leta 20. stoletja, ko je pripadal pariškemu krogu nadrealistov. Posebej plodno je bilo leto 1934, ko je imel kar šest samostojnih razstav, po dve v New Yorku in  Parizu, po eno pa v Barceloni in Londonu. Leta 1934 je nastalo več ključnih Dalíjevih del, med njimi je tudi serija heliogravur s suho iglo na temo slovitih Maldororjevih spevov, ki so jih pri založbi Skira uporabili kot ilustracije k besedilu grofa Lautréamonta (1846–1870). Lautréamont je bil s svojimi fantastičnimi vizijami pomemben vzornik nadrealističnega gibanja in Luis Buñuel in Dalí sta se mu poklonila s filmom Zlati časi (1930). Dalí ni dosledno sledil nenavadnim situacijam v Lautréamontovi pesnitvi, pač pa se je osredotočil na motive, ki jih je sočasno razvijal tudi v slikarstvu, vključno z lastno interpretacijo znamenite slike Večerna molitev francoskega realističnega slikarja Françoisa Milleta (1857–1859). Razložil jo je na osnovi Freudove teorije in v podobi otožnega kmeta prepoznal Ojdipov kompleks. Razstava na lendavskem gradu obiskovalce seznanja tudi s tem plodnim Dalíjevim obdobjem, sicer pa glavnina eksponatov datira v čas po drugi svetovni vojni.

Katedrala palcev
1947, perorisba, 15,8 x 20,8 cm

Leta 1940 sta Gala in Salvador Dalí pobegnila iz Francije v Združene države in tam ostala osem let. Tudi  v eksilu je bil nadvse dejaven, dobival je veliko naročil in delal je na različnih področjih. Med drugim so ga angažirali kot ilustratorja pri založbi Doubleday v New Yorku. Eseji Michela de Mantaigna so ga je vznemirjal že dolgo. Spise francoskega renesančnega misleca je opremil s 37 ilustracijami, med katerimi najdemo tudi podobe palca. Že leta 1929 je v reviji L’amic de les arts objavil esej z naslovom Osvoboditev palca, v katerem se je ukvarjal s simboliko palca in motivom operutničenega falusa, ki so ga v priprošnji za plodnost častili v antiki. V Mayerjevi zbirki hranijo risbo s tušem, naslovljeno Katedrala palcev, datirano v leto 1947. Šest velikih palcev, ki mečejo dolge in močne sence, je razpostavljenih v široko odprtem prostoru, prizor pa dopolnjujejo figure, ki sprožajo roke z dvignjenimi palci. V drugi polovici štiridesetih let je Dalí zavzel nov odnos do slikarstva in ga predstavil v besedilu z naslovom Petdeset magičnih skrivnosti (1948). Skrivnosti so bolj kot ne pravila tehnične narave, ki spominjajo na razmišljanja renesančnih mojstrov. Dalí je z velikim občudovanjem študiral stare spise in v teh letih tudi sam zastavil slikanje na način, ki so ga nekateri poimenovali novi klasicizem, hkrati pa se razglasil za bivšega nadrealista. Vrhunec tega obdobja je slika z naslovom Leda Atomica (1949), na kateri je upodobil golo Galo z labodom in drugimi predmeti, kako lebdijo v prostoru. Zgledovanje po renesansi je očitno, prav tako precizna in poudarjena perspektiva, simetrija in sklici na antiko. Prepoznavna je tudi fascinacija nad dosežki atomske fizike. Eksplozija atomske bombe, ki je simbolično zaključila drugo svetovno vojno, ga je prepričala, da mora atom postati jedro njegovega prihodnjega razmišljanja.

Leta 1948 se je Dalí vrnil v Španijo in ostal tam do smrti  leta 1989. Javno je izrazil svoje prepričanje v antidemokracijo in absolutno monarhijo ter se poklonil generalu Francu, s čimer si je prislužil veliko zamer. Mnogi likovnimi kritiki so mu tudi zaradi političnih stališč odrekli umetniško in intelektualno avtoriteto. Leta 1951 je v Parizu objavil Mistični manifest, v katerem je pojasnil svoj obrat k neoklasicizmu in ponovno odkritje renesanse.

Kristus sv. Janeza od Križa
1951, perorisba, 20,5 x 14,5 cm

V pregledih Dalíjevega slikarstva so petdeseta leta običajno označena kot mistično-nuklearna faza. Zanimala sta ga askeza in mistika na način, na kakršen so ju gojili španski mistiki renesančne dobe. Študiral je pitagorejsko matematiko in spise frančiškana Luca Paciolija (1445–1514) in španskega arhitekta Juana de Herrera (1530–1597), hkrati pa so ga zanimala najnovejša odkritja atomske fizike, kvantne mehanike in logaritmične spirale, ki jih je uzrl npr. v nosorogovemu rogu. Dematerializacija in breztežnost sta bila pojava, ki ju je povezal s skrivnostmi nebeškega. Prevzela ga je izkušnja karmeličanskega meniha in mistika iz 16. stoletja, sv. Janeza od Križa, ki se mu je med molitvijo v samostanu v Avili prikazal Križani, svojo vizijo pa je nato narisal. Leta 1641 so risbo shranili v monštranco in prav ta risba je navdihnila Dalíja. Sv. Janez od Križa je Kristusa narisal v pogledu od zgoraj in nekoliko od strani, spodnji del križa pa je odrezal od kompozicije, zato dobimo občutek, da Križani lebdi v zraku. Tudi Dalí je svojega Križanega upodobil v pogledu od zgoraj, vendar ga je centraliziral. Križ, viden v celoti, lebdi na temnem ozadju neba, pod njim pa se v svetlobi poslednjih sončnih žarkov rdečijo oblaki in blešči bok čolna ob obali, ki jo prepoznamo kot zaliv Port Lligat, kjer sta živela z Galo.  Za sliko, ki jo hranijo v Umetnostni galeriji v Glasgowu, je narejenih precej študij, posebej zanimiva pa je najstarejša med njimi, datirana z letnicama 1950 in 1951 in opremljena z zapisom. V njem Dalí pojasnjuje, da je imel leta 1950 »kozmične sanje«, v katerih se mu je risba sv. Janeza od Križa prikazala v barvah. Očitno se je o tem pogovarjal s patrom Brunom, pariškim karmeličanom, in sanjsko vizijo Kristusa narisal kot majhen krog v navzdol obrnjenem trikotniku, kar je tudi kompozicijska zasnova velike slike. Tudi na jedkanici iz Mayerjeve zbirke, na kateri je predstavljen Kristus na križu, lebdečem v pokrajini, so z žarki, ki se z levega roba lista širijo proti podobi Križanega, v trikotnik povezane točke na Kristusovem telesu, ki so jih prebili z žeblji.

S takšno podobo lebdečega Kristusa je Dalí opremil svoj Mistični manifest, obstaja pa tudi verzija brez križa in krajine. Lebdečega Križanega je Dali vkomponiral še v druga mlajša slikarska dela, med drugim je tudi v središču velike kompozicije Assumpta corpuscularia lapislazulina (1952), ki predstavlja Marijino vnebovzetje. Marija ima obraz in telo Gale, na njenem prosojnem in razpotegnjenem telesu pa se nad oltarjem ponovi Kristus sv. Janeza od Križa, vendar tokrat brez križa.

Dalí je v spominih zapisal, da je bil njegov največji učitelj Don Juan Núñez Fernández  (1877–1963), ki je bil odličen v jedkanici in je Dalíja že pri dvanajstih letih uvedel v tančine svetlo-temnega principa in v skrivnosti Rembrandtovih grafičnih listov. Ko je moral Dalí zapustiti akademijo v Madridu in se je vrnil v domači Figueras, mu je oče kupil tiskarski stroj. Dalí je najraje delal v suhi igli, s katero je pogosto nadgrajeval jedkanice, sicer pa je veliko eksperimentiral. Litografija, ki se mu je v tehnološkem smislu zdela nezanimiva in brez prave moči, se je izkazala prikladna za njegove poskuse. Na kamnito matrico je »streljal« (oz. so streljali njegovi pomočniki) z litografskimi tuši, s čimer je dosegal tašistične efekte. Nenavadna tehnika je dobila ime buletizem, po francoski besedi boule, ki pomeni krogla. Kroglo, nekakšno bombo, so napolnili s tuši ali različnimi drugimi predmeti in ko se je ob stiku z matrico razletela, je na njej pustila sledi.

Madonne
(DON QUICHOTTE DE LA MANCHE)

1957 Paris, barvna litografij, 64,5 x 41 cm

Kot bibliofil je v hiši v Port Lligatu hranil veliko knjig. Njegovi življenjepisci poročajo, da je vanje med branjem pisal beležke in podčrtoval zanimivosti. Nekaj knjig je napisal tudi sam; v nekaterih je opisal svoje življenje, v drugih je pojasnjeval svoj umetniški credo. Bil pa je tudi cenjen ilustrator. Za ilustracije je včasih izdelal akvarele, ki so jih nato graverji prenesli na matrice, večkrat pa jih je tudi sam vrezal v matrice. Tehniko buletizma je prvič uporabil, ko je pripravljal ilustracije za Don Kihota (1957). Založnik je vztrajal pri litografiji, zato je začel eksperimentirati. V kamnite plošče je streljal iz stare puške, svinčene krogle pa napolnil z litografskim črnilom. Poškodbe na plošči je opisal kot »božje madeže, nekakšne angelske peruti, zgrajene iz zraka in dinamične moči«. Naključne poškodbe plošč je izkoristil kot kompozicijska izhodišča, motivno je zajemal iz svojega znanega repertoarja, se navdihoval pri renesančnih mojstrih, hkrati pa vpletel sodobne teme, ki so ga takrat vznemirjale. Tako med listi najdemo tudi podobo nuklearnega mlina na veter, kjer se nad figuro srednjeveškega viteza grozeče dviga antropomorfiziran oblak atomske eksplozije. V liste pa so odtisnjene tudi sledi prastarih živali  (polžjih hišic, amonitov); Dalí je namreč zahteval plošče iz apnenca z veliko vsebnostjo fosilov, ki jih pridobivajo v bavarskem Solnhofnu.

All in the Golden Afternoon
(Alica v čudežni deželi)
1969 New York, jedkanica, 43 x 58 cm

Od srede šestdesetih let si je Dalí motive vse pogosteje izposojal pri drugih avtorjih. Tako je v dogovoru z  založnikom Pierrom Argilletom predelal Picassovo Tavromahijo iz leta 1957, pri čemer ga je navdihovala tudi Goyeva serija jedkanic z enako tematiko. Akvarele za serijo Nadrealistična Tavromahija (1966/67) je predal grafičnim mojstrom, da so jih natisnili v tehniki heliogravure. Goya in Picasso sta izhajala iz fascinacije nad ritualnim zakolom bika in dogajanjem v areni, Dalí pa je vsebino posodobil; v posameznih listih prepoznavamo detajle iz njegovih drugih kompozicij, list z naslovom Televizija (prizor je ujet v okvir televizijskega ekrana) pa zajema iz poparta. Podobno je pripravil predloge za Alico v čudežni deželi Lewisa Carrolla, ki so bile odtisnjene kot barvne heliogravure (1968/69). V Mayerjevi zbirki sta poleg grafične serije ohranjeni tudi dve predlogi v tehniki gvaša. Domišljijsko bogat svet znamenite zgodbe je ustrezal Dalíjevemu smislu za nadrealno. Deklica, ki vihti kolebnico, je prepoznaven lik Alice, kot rdeča nit celote pa delujejo tudi realistično zvesti metulji in hrošči. Živopisan značaj serije kaže povezati z Dalíjevim zanimanjem za sočasno hipijevsko gibanje. Kompozicije narativno sledijo literarni predlogi, a na njih se soočamo tudi z značilnimi Dalíjevimi motivi, npr. z mehkimi urami. Podobno barvito je zastavljena serija barvnih litografij na temo Carmen. Slikar je sledil prizorom iz znamenite opere Georgea Bizeta tako, kot so se odvijali na odru, vmes pa je nanizal nekaj portretov glavnih junakov.

LE PIANO SOUS LA NEIGE (TAUROMACHIE SURRÉALISTE)
(Nadrealistična Tavromahija)
1967 Paris, suha igla in akvatinta, 51 x 66 cm

DIX RECETTES D’IMMORTALITÉ
Deset receptov za nesmrtnost
1973 Paris, kovček iz pleksi stekla, 65 x 56 x 10 cm

Prav posebno mesto v poznem opusu Salvadorja Dalíja in tudi na razstavi v lendavskem gradu pritiče knjigi-objektu, ki jo je slikar naslovil Deset receptov za nesmrtnost (1973). V kovčku iz pleksi stekla, z ročajem v obliki telefona in s ključavnicama v obliki jajc na oko, je shranjenih več grafičnih listov (pretežno gre za suhe igle), deloma v obliki zgibank. Dalí je pri oblikovanju knjige-objekta upošteval stereoskopsko tehniko, ki jo je odkrival ob preučevanju del holandskega slikarja Gerrita Doua (1613–1675). Ugotovil je, da se v človeških možganih dve dve skoraj, ne pa povsem enaki ploskoviti sliki, ki upodabljata isti motiv v nekoliko spremenjenih zornih kotih, združita v eno podobo z izrazitim trodimenzionalnim prostorskim učinkom. Nad ugotovitvijo je bil navdušen in v sedemdesetih letih ga je binakularna metoda zelo zaposlovala. Povezoval jo je z največjimi fizikalnimi odkritji in v njej odkrival božje zakonitosti, čisto energijo in vir nesmrtnosti. Deset receptov za nesmrtnost temelji na znanstvenih spoznanjih, ki so tako ali drugače povezana s človekovo večno težnjo po neumrljivosti, zaradi česar je bil v stikih s številnimi strokovnjaki. Vprašanje smrti ga je mučilo tudi na osebni ravni in med upodobitvami z raznolikimi motivi, oprtimi na starejšo umetnost, sakralno simboliko in na znan dalíjevski nadrealistični repertoar, je tudi trodelna zgibanka s pomenljivim naslovom Stereoskopska nesmrtnost monarhije (tudi Nesmrtna monarhija), ki jo lahko povežemo z Dalíjevim prepričanjem o edini pravi politični ureditvi.

MOSES (MOĪSE ET LE MONOTHÉISME)
(Mojzes in monoteizem)
1974 Paris/Nice, lesorez, 65,5 x 49,7 cm

V kovčku, vendar usnjenem, so shranjeni tudi grafični listi (jedkanice preko barvnih litografij, tiskane na živalsko kožo), naslovljeni Mojzes in monoteizem (1974). Kovček krasi posrebren relief Mojzesa po Michelangelu. Grafikam je priložena Freudova razprava Mož Mojzes in monoteistična religija (1939). Izbira vsebine temelji na Dalíjevem vsesplošnem zanimanju za Freuda, a tudi na njegovem specifičnem odnosu do avtoritativnega očeta, ki je imel navado vrteti med prsti šop las, da se je ustvarila spirala, ki je štrlela nad očetovo pričesko podobno kot Mojzesov rog.

Razstavo kronološko zaključuje akvarel z upodobitvijo dveh mehkih ur (1978). Žepne ure, ki se upogibajo in raztegujejo kot nekakšni mlahavi jeziki, so verjetno najbolj prepoznaven motiv iz obsežnega nabora nenavadnih predmetov na Dalíjevih slikah. Prvič jih je upodobil leta 1931 na sliki Vztrajnost spomina (zdaj v Muzeju moderne umetnosti v New Yorku). Običajno jih interpretiramo tako, da simbolizirajo relativnost prostora in časa, čeprav je slikar sam povedal, da ga je navdihnil košček sira, ki se je zmehčal v pretoplem ozračju. Mehke ure pogosto nastopajo kot nasprotje elementu trdega, saj so Dalíja privlačile dvojice v kontrapunktnem razmerju.

Salvador Dalí je eden najbolj znanih umetnikov 20. stoletja, zelo svojstven in tudi kontroverzen. Ni se podrejal utečenim tokovom in njegovo delo je bilo deležno različnih ocen. Zavračali so ga nekateri eminentni kritiki, med njimi Clement Greenberg (1909–1994), imel pa je tudi veliko občudovalcev in sledilcev. Preučevanje njegovega opusa iz večje časovne distance pridobiva raziskovalno objektivnost in lahko si obetamo nova dognanja, ki nam bodo približala zapleteno ustvarjalno slo nenavadnega slikarja iz Katalonije. Z nadrealizmom so se že pred drugo vojno seznanili tudi slovenski ustvarjalci. Stane Kregar (1905–1973) ga je spoznal med študijem v Pragi s pomočjo revijalnih objav in ob delih čeških nadrealistov, v Parizu pa je lahko v letih 1937 in 1938 neposredno preučeval Dalíjeva dela iz obdobja paranoično-kritične metode. Tomaž Brejc ugotavlja, da Kregar ni sprejel Dalíjevega radikalnega pristopa. Zapisal je še, da ga je katalonski slikar navdihoval s posameznostmi, ki si jih je sposodil in prenesel v lastne kompozicije ter izoblikoval svojo varianto nadrealizma, označeno z »religiozno-ruralno slovensko mizansceno tridesetih let«. V zapuščini ptujskega slikarja Albina Lugariča (1927–2014) pa se je ohranila lavirana risba s hudomušno podobo slavnega Katalonca, ki ga nadležna muha obmetava z jajci.

dr. Marjeta Ciglenečki, art historian


SELECTED WORKS

Pujs in poper / Malac borssal / Schwein und Pfeffer / Pig and Pepper Gosenica / Hernyó / Raupe / Caterpillar CARMEN CARMEN CARMEN CARMEN LE RÉVE DE MOĪSE (MOĪSE ET LE MONOTHÉISME) CARMEN CARMEN Attaque sur le moulin a vent (DON QUICHOTTE DE LA MANCHE) IMMORTALITÉ DE CASTOR ET POLLUX (DIX RECETTES D'IMMORTALITÉ) LA SYSTÉME CAGA Y MENÍA (DIX RECETTES D'IMMORTALITÉ) Mad Tea Party 16 (LE TRICORNE) 12 (LE TRICORNE) S.N.C.F


PUBLICATION

The printed version of this publication can be purchased at the box office at Lendava Castle.


PHOTO-GALLERY: Exhibition opening

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Photo: Tomaž Galič